Author - Associate Nupur Mehrotra
Textile Industries has lots of importance in our country. It contributes about 14 per cent to industrial productions, four per cent GDP and 27 per cent to the country’s foreign exchange inflow. It also provides direct employment to over 45 million people. The readymade manufacturing sector is Bangalore also the largest urban employer. Despite a massive internal market in India, the readymade manufacturing sector is largely export-oriented with a significant proportion of production where the Garment Industry is an industry under ID Act.
Section 2(j) of the Industrial Dispute Act provides the definition of Industry. It defines Industry as ‘any business, trade, manufacture or calling of employers. Section 2(n) defines the public utility as any service of the railway, service which is connected to any port or dock majorly, any establishment of the industry working for the safety of the workmen, any service in connection to telegraph postal or telephone, Industry through which power light or water is supplied to the public and the system connected to the sanitation. This shows that the garment industry is clearly an industry under the Industrial Dispute act.
These textile industries are health hazardous as the labourers working in this are affected a lot as their health deteriorates. Government has started certain measures but that is capital oriented and very less concerned about the health of the labourers. We cannot side the benefits of these industries.
This research revolves around the garment industry as among all the textile industries it is the garment industry which yields more profit and also employs more women skilled workers as most employees are illiterate.
Shahi Export Pvt. Ltd Bengaluru has been undertaken for the study. It revolves around women workers and married workers. Three classes have been taken into account namely the personal information, work-related information and finally the benefits of the worker. The age factor has not been part of the study.
Hypothesis gives an idea about the concept with which the researcher has started the research. In this research it was that the garment industry workers were not safeguarded by the social security measure, the employer would at least give minimum wages to his workers and finally the working conditions for the workers were not proper and they were exposed to a hazardous condition.
The main objective of the survey was to know whether the workers were aware of the objectives of the benefits that were available to them, the working hours that they had to work, also about the implementation of the social schemes and also the health hazards that they face or that which can harm them in long run.
A questionnaire was prepared and given to the workers working in that industry. As most of them were illiterate so the researcher used to note the answers by themselves. Few questions were open-ended and few questions were close-ended.
Among 24 respondents 10 are of 30-35 years of age and 11 are of 36-40 years and 3 of them are of 41-45 years of age. Also among 26 people 6 are illiterate, 10 have passed 7th and 5 have completed SS/C and 3 have done PUC.
Researchers have made separate questions to know whether they are aware of the benefits provided to them. They came to know that except for two programmes they don’t know about any other facilities.
Working hours have been fixed to 8 hours under Article 23 of the constitution for the labourers or workers and also entitled to paid leave or they can manage their salary through overtime. Also, they can be paid for the work they have done in their overtime as festive bonus.
The main problem faced by the workers working in the factory is asthma and other breathing complications. Masks are provided to them but they are of low quality.
The labourers were not the part of any trade union as by working 8 hours and then again going back to home and completing the work there, they did not have any time for any trade union activity.
This survey concludes that there is no proper social security for the worker as well the no proper steps are taken to safeguard the health of the workmen. It also shows that proper wages are given to the workers. But the major issue faced is the health hazards and this can cause long term health issues.