Dec 26,2019 | 18 min read

Property Laws In India

Author - Associate Zarmeen Jahan

The Transfer of Property Act 1882 is an Indian enactment which directs the exchange of property in India. It contains explicit arrangements concerning what comprises an exchange and the conditions connected to it. It came into power on 1 July 1882.

As per the Act, 'move of property' signifies a demonstration by which an individual passes on the property to at least one people, or himself and at least one different people. The demonstration of move might be done in the present or for what's to come. The individual may incorporate an individual, organization or affiliation or assortment of people, and any sort of property might be moved, including the exchange of unflinching property.

Section 44 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, deals with transfers by one co-owner. It also deals with the rights of a transferee in this type of transaction.


Possession comprises of an endless number of cases, freedoms, powers with respect to the thing claimed. Proprietorship is of various types. There are supreme and restricted, sole possession, co-proprietorship, vested possession, unforeseen possession, bodily, ethereal. At the point when an individual possesses property in one time, it is called a sole proprietorship, however, on the off chance that the property is claimed by more than one individual, at that point it is called joint proprietorship. By methods for segment one can have co-possession changed into sole proprietorship. Therefore, if a co-owner is deprived of his property, he has a right to be put back in possession. Such a co-owner has an interest in every portion of the property and has a right irrespective of his quantity of shares, to be in possession jointly with others. This is also called joint-ownership.

The following are the types of co-ownerships:

Tenants in Common

At the point when the sort of co-proprietorship isn't explicitly expressed, as a matter of course, an occupancy in like manner is probably going to exist. Each inhabitant in like manner has a different partial enthusiasm for the whole property. Albeit each inhabitant in like manner has a different enthusiasm for the property, each may have and utilize the entire property. Inhabitants in like manner may hold inconsistent enthusiasm for the property yet the interests held by each occupant in like manner is a fragmentary enthusiasm for the whole property, for example, B claims a 25% enthusiasm for the property and A possesses a 75% intrigue. Each inhabitant in like manner may uninhibitedly move his/her enthusiasm for the property.

Inhabitants in like manner don't have the privilege of survivorship. Thusly, upon the demise of one occupant in like manner, his/her advantage passes by means of a will or through the laws of intestacy to someone else who will at that point become an inhabitant in the same way as the enduring co-proprietors.

Joint Tenancy

The most attractive feature of joint tenancy is the right of survivorship. Upon the death of one joint tenant, his/her interest immediately passes to the surviving joint tenants and not to the decedent's estate. Joint tenants hold a single unified interest in the entire property. Each joint tenant must have equal shares in the property For e.g. B and A each hold a 50% interest. Each joint tenant may occupy the entire property subject only to the rights of the other joint tenants.


As per Section 6 of the Transfer of Property Act, the property of any sort might be moved. The individual demanding non-transferability must demonstrate the presence of some law or custom which limits the privilege of the move. Except if there are some legitimate limitations forestalling the exchange, the proprietor of the property may move it. In any case, now and again, there might be an exchange of property by an unapproved individual who along these lines procures an enthusiasm for such property.

In the event that the property is moved dependent upon the condition which totally controls the transferee from leaving behind or discarding his enthusiasm for the property, the condition is void. The main special case is on account of a rent where the condition is to help the lessor or those asserting under him. For the most part, just the individual having enthusiasm for the property is approved to move his enthusiasm for the property and can give the best possible title to some other individual.

The privileges of the transferees won't be unfavourably influenced, if: they acted in compliance with common decency; the property was procured for thought, and the transferees had acted without notice of the imperfection in the title of the transferor.

These conditions must be fulfilled:

There must be a portrayal by the transferor that he has the position to move the undaunted property. The portrayal ought to be either false or wrong. The transferee must follow up on the portrayal in compliance with common decency. The exchange ought to be accomplished for a thought. The transferor ought to in this manner gain some enthusiasm for the property he had consented to move. The transferee may have the alternative to obtain the intrigue which the transferor in this way gains.

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