Nov 28,2020 | 8 min read

"Electronic Evidence" By Anusha Vijayakumar

Co-Author: Aditi Das

The concept of "electronic proof" has been presented through the Information Technology Act, 2000 ("IT Act") and the related alterations within the Evidence Act, 1872 ("Evidence Act") and the Indian Penal Code, 1860 ("IPC"). The IT Act and its revision are based on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law ("UNCITRAL") show Law on Electronic Commerce. Concurring to Area 2(1)(t) of the IT Act, the term "electronic record" implies information, record or information created, picture or sound put away, gotten or sent in an electronic shape or micro-film or computer-generated miniaturized scale fiche. Segment 4 of the IT Act explicitly perceives the legitimacy and utilize of electronic records input of standard paper-based records. 

The Evidence Act/Prove Act was corrected by ideals of Segment 92 of the IT Act and the term "prove" was corrected to incorporate "electronic record", subsequently permitting for suitability of the advanced prove. Earlier to the legitimate acknowledgement allowed to electronic prove, Areas 63 and 65 of Evidence Act; and the prohibition of electronic record beneath Segment 59 of Prove Act clearly means the clear and express authoritative purposeful to not expand the appropriateness of Segments 59 and 61 to 65 of the Prove Act to electronic record, in see of superseding arrangement of Area 65B of the Prove Act, which bargains solely with the tolerability of such electronic record.

Admissibility of Electronic Records

Area 65A of the Evidence Act gives that the substance of electronic records may be demonstrated in agreement with the arrangements of Area 65B of the Evidence Act. Hence, any narrative proved by way of an electronic record can be demonstrated as it were in understanding with the strategy endorsed beneath Area 65B of the Evidence Act. Segment 65B of the Evidence Act gives that regardless anything contained within the Evidence Act, any data contained in an electronic record, whether it be the substance of a report or communication printed on a paper, or put away, recorded, replicated in optical or attractive media created by a computer, it is regarded to be a record and is allowable in proving without advance confirmation of the generation of the first, subject to fulfilment of the conditions set out in Segment 65B(2) - (5) of the Evidence Act.

Technical and non-technical grounds

Segment 65B of the Evidence Act gives for both specialized conditions and non-technical grounds for acceptability of electronic proof. Sub-section (2) of Area 65B of the Evidence Act records the innovative conditions upon which a copy duplicate (counting a print-out) of a unique electronic record may be utilized. These are:

a) At the time of the creation of the electronic record, the computer that produced it must have been in regular use;

b) The kind of information contained in the electronic record must have been regularly and ordinarily fed into the computer;

c) The computer was operating properly; and

d) The duplicate copy must be a reproduction of the original electronic record.

As can be induced, the over conditions relate to the veracity of the information. The conditions have a two-fold effect as they:

i) guarantee that there has been no unapproved utilize of the information;

ii) the gadget was working legitimately, guaranteeing precision and validity of the duplicated data. Sub-section (3) of Segment 65B of the Evidence Act is self-explanatory and affirms that if the client has been employing an organized gadget either to store or handle data, all the associated gadgets will be considered to be a single gadget.

Certificate of Authenticity

Area 65B(4) of the Evidence Act gives for the non-technical conditions being the necessity of a certificate of genuineness. The reason for the certificate is to fulfil the conditions laid out by the going before subsection (2) of Segment 65B of the Evidence Act. The certificate is to be executed/signed by an individual possessing a dependable position in connection to the gadget through which the information has been delivered. The certificate must recognize the electronic record containing the explanation, depict how it was delivered additionally provide such particulars of any device included within the generation of the electronic record as may be fitting for the reason of appearing that a computer-delivered the electronic record. The certificate must moreover bargain with any of the things to which the conditions for suitability relate. The entire idea behind the certificate is also to ensure the integrity of the source and authenticity of the data so that the Court may be able to place reliance on it. This is critical since electronic data is more prone to tampering and alteration.

Whereas the significance of electronic records is particular to the actualities and circumstances of each case, the validity, veracity and unwavering quality of advanced proof are one of the greatest challenges that courts got to bargain with whereas arbitrating upon the suitability of the electronic proof. In this manner, it becomes critical that the Courts guarantee that records were not controlled, modified or harmed, between the time they were really made and put forward in Courts. Over a period of time, different Courts in India have arbitrated on how distinctive electronic media may be offered in proof.


The certificate beneath Segment 65B of the Evidence Act needs to specify that the computer amid the significant period was within the legal control of the person proving the mail which information was frequently bolstered into the computer within the conventional course of the exercises. Advance, it is additionally important to state that the computer was working legitimately and the substance printed on paper is determined from the data encouraged into the computer within the conventional course of activities. Upon fulfilling the previously mentioned criteria, e-mails can be perused to prove in see of the assumption beneath Segment 88A of the Evidence Act concerning the veracity of the substance of an electronic message, until particularly invalidated. Be that as it may, this Area does not give for any assumption as to the sender of the mail. In this manner, until and unless a party sets up as to who was the sender, a print out of an e-mail cannot be given much significance.


While perceiving its significance as an electronic proof, the Hon'ble Delhi High Court has clarified that as long as nothing at all is composed on to a difficult disk, and it is subjected to no alter, it'll be a simple electronic storage gadget like every other equipment of the computer. In any case, once a difficult disk is subject to any alter, at that point indeed in case it reestablished to the initial position by switching that alter, the information concerning the two steps, viz., the alter and its inversion will be put away within the subcutaneous memory of the difficult disk and can be recovered by utilizing computer program planned for that purpose. Therefore, a difficult disk that's once composed upon or subjected to alter any is itself an electronic record indeed if it does not contain any open data at the display. In this respect, the Courts have known that there seems to be dynamic data accessible on the difficult disk which is open and convertible into other shapes of information and transferable to other electronic gadgets. The active information would also constitute an electronic record.

Call Records

Most criminal examinations regularly commence from an investigation of the call records of the denounced. Such call records are regularly valuable as a beginning point for setting up schemes with other people. Whereas noticing that call records are put away in colossal servers which cannot be effectively moved and created within the court, the Hon'ble Supreme Court has held that printouts taken from the computers/servers by mechanical prepare and certified by a mindful official of the service-providing company can be driven in evidence through a witness who can distinguish the marks of the certifying officer or something else talk of the truths based on his individual information. Assisted, independent of the compliance with the prerequisites of Area 65B of the Prove Act, there's no bar to show auxiliary proof beneath Segments 63 and 65 of the Evidence Act. 


In most of the cases, the computerized camera itself isn't delivered some time recently to the court and a party either takes a plan of action to a printout or a few other capacity media such as CDs, USB Drives, etc. So an individual who was capable of taking care of the computerized camera, which too took the photo and exchanged it to the storage media has to certify how the printout or capacity was done. This is often has been advance clarified by the Hon'ble Delhi High Court by expressing that when the party deposes that he took the photos himself, got them created and recorded them within the Court; the non-filing of negatives cannot be a ground to dismiss them, particularly when the photos so depended upon are computerized photos.


With the sanctioning of the IT Act and the consequent Revisions within the Evidence Act, the utilization of gadgets records in legal procedures has gone a long way. In any case, despite different legal points of reference pushing on the significance of the certificate, the certificate has ended up a simple convention. With the prerequisite of a certificate beneath Section 65B of the Evidence Act being weakened by the administering of the Supreme Court Shafi Mohammed, it would be curious to see how the Incomparable Court clarifies the same. Indeed, from there on, with the nonstop advancement of the cyberspace, it would be apt that the courts keep up with the changes in cyberspace, to advance certainty within the use of such electronic records, whereas taking under consideration all viable angles.

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anusha Vijayakumar

i have been practicing for the past eight and a half years in various areas of law. I have been practicing in the areas of civil, criminal, arbitration, banking, corporate litigation